In reading the Constitution referring to the Judicial branch it very clearly states all criminal cases shall be held in the state of occurrence and by jury. This would mean that at no time can a criminal case in any appellate court be decided by judges.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed.
I also need explained the 11th amendment.
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.